_images/DERO-logo.png

Welcome to DERO Documentation!

ABOUT DERO

DERO is a general purpose, private, and scalable decentralized application platform that allows developers to deploy powerful and unstoppable applications, while users retain total control over their assets with complete privacy.

DERO has been developed from scratch in Golang and is being actively developed by the original developers. It is not a fork of any other coin.

The DERO Project has created a platform for developers to deploy secure, open, scalable, and privacy-preserving decentralized applications. DERO is unique because we value security and privacy above all else; as a result, users are able to transact privately over our network without fear of common protocol-level and network attacks. Additionally, our technology preserves transparency where required and scales with network load, which provides an ideal environment for business-class applications.

DERO HE Features

  1. Homomorphic account based model [First privacy chain to have this.](Check blockchain/transaction_execute.go line 82-95).

  2. Instant account balances[ Need to get 66 bytes of data only from the blockchain].

  3. DAG/MINIDAG with 1 miniblock every second

  4. Mining Decentralization.No more mining pools, daily 100000 reward blocks, no need for pools and thus no attacks

  5. Erasure coded blocks, lower bandwidth requirements, very low propagation time.

  6. No more chain scanning or wallet scanning to detect funds, no key images etc.

  7. Truly light weight and efficient wallets.

  8. Fixed per account cost of 66 bytes in blockchain[Immense scalability].

  9. Perfectly anonymous transactions with many-out-of-many proofs [bulletproofs and sigma protocol]

  10. Deniability

  11. Fixed transaction size say ~2.5KB (ring size 8) or ~3.4 KB (ring size 16) etc based on chosen anonymity group size[ logarithmic growth]

  12. Anonymity group can be chosen in powers of 2.

  13. Allows homomorphic assets ( programmable SCs with fixed overhead per asset ), with open Smart Contract but encrypted data [Internal testing/implementation not on this current testnet branch].

  14. Allows open assets ( programmable SCs with fixed overhead per asset ) [Internal testing/implementation not on this current testnet branch]

  15. Allows chain pruning on daemons to control growth of data on daemons.

  16. Transaction generation takes less than 25 ms.

  17. Transaction verification takes even less than 25ms time.

  18. No trusted setup, no hidden parameters.

  19. Pruning chain/history for immense scalibility[while still secured using merkle proofs].

  20. Example disk requirements of 1 billion accounts ( assumming it does not want to keep history of transactions, but keeps proofs to prove that the node is in sync with all other nodes)

Requirement of 1 account = 66 bytes
Assumming storage overhead per account of 128 bytes ( constant )
Total requirements = (66 + 128)GB ~ 200GB
Assuming we are off by factor of 4 = 800GB
  1. Note that, Even after 1 trillion transactions, 1 billion accounts will consume 800GB only, If history is not maintained, and everything still will be in proved state using merkle roots. And so, Even Raspberry Pi can host the entire chain.

  2. Senders can prove to receiver what amount they have send (without revealing themselves).

  3. Worlds first Erasure Coded Propagation protocol, which allows 100x block size without increasing propagation delays.

  4. Entire chain is rsyncable while in operation.

  5. Testnet released with source code.

_images/about1.png

NB: Plan to reduce TX sizes further.

DERO Crypto

Secure and fast crypto is the basic necessity of this project and adequate amount of time has been devoted to develop/study/implement/audit it. Most of the crypto such as ring signatures have been studied by various researchers and are in production by number of projects. As far as the Bulletproofs are considered, since DERO is the first one to implement/deploy, they have been given a more detailed look. First, a bare bones bulletproofs was implemented, then implementations in development were studied (Benedict Bunz,XMR, Dalek Bulletproofs) and thus improving our own implementation.

Some new improvements were discovered and implemented (There are number of other improvements which are not explained here). Major improvements are in the Double-Base Double-Scalar Multiplication while validating bulletproofs. A typical bulletproof takes ~15-17 ms to verify. Optimised bulletproofs takes ~1 to ~2 ms(simple bulletproof, no aggregate/batching). Since, in the case of bulletproofs the bases are fixed, we can use precompute table to convert 64*2 Base Scalar multiplication into doublings and additions (NOTE: We do not use Bos-Coster/Pippienger methods). This time can be again easily decreased to .5 ms with some more optimizations. With batching and aggregation, 5000 range-proofs (~2500 TX) can be easily verified on even a laptop. The implementation for bulletproofs is in github.com/deroproject/derosuite/crypto/ringct/bulletproof.go , optimized version is in github.com/deroproject/derosuite/crypto/ringct/bulletproof_ultrafast.go

There are other optimizations such as base-scalar multiplication could be done in less than a microsecond. Some of these optimizations are not yet deployed and may be deployed at a later stage.

DEROHE PORTS

Mainnet:

P2P Default Port: 10101 RPC Default Port: 10102 Wallet RPC Default Port: 10103

Testnet:

P2P Default Port: 40401 RPC Default Port: 40402 Wallet RPC Default Port: 40403

Technical

For specific details of current DERO core (daemon) implementation and capabilities, see below:

  1. Enhanced Reliability, Privacy, Security, Useability, Portabilty assured.

  2. BulletProofs: Zero Knowledge range-proofs(NIZK)

  3. Cryptonight Hash: This is memory-bound algorithm. This provides assurance that all miners are equal. ( No miner has any advantage over common miners).

  4. P2P Protocol: This layers controls exchange of blocks, transactions and blockchain itself.

  5. Pederson Commitment: (Part of ring confidential transactions): Pederson commitment algorithm is a cryptographic primitive that allows user to commit to a chosen value while keeping it hidden to others. Pederson commitment is used to hide all amounts without revealing the actual amount. It is a homomorphic commitment scheme.

  6. Borromean Signature: (Part of ring confidential transactions): Borromean Signatures are used to prove that the commitment has a specific value, without revealing the value itself.

  7. Additive Homomorphic Encryption: Additive Homomorphic Encryption is used to prove that sum of encrypted Input transaction amounts is EQUAL to sum of encrypted output amounts. This is based on Homomorphic Pederson commitment scheme.

  8. Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group (MLSAG): (Part of ring confidential transactions): MLSAG gives DERO untraceability and increases privacy and fungibility. MLSAG is a user controlled parameter ( Mixin) which the user can change to improve his privacy. Mixin of minimal amount is enforced and user cannot disable it.

  9. Ring Confidential Transactions: Gives untraceability , privacy and fungibility while making sure that the system is stable and secure.

  10. Core-Consensus Protocol implemented: Consensus protocol serves 2 major purpose

  11. Protects the system from adversaries and protects it from forking and tampering.

  12. Next block in the chain is the one and only correct version of truth ( balances).

  13. Proof-of-Work(PoW) algorithm: PoW part of core consensus protocol which is used to cryptographically prove that X amount of work has been done to successfully find a block.

  14. Difficulty algorithm: Difficulty algorithm controls the system so as blocks are found roughly at the same speed, irrespective of the number and amount of mining power deployed.

  15. Serialization/De-serialization of blocks: Capability to encode/decode/process blocks .

  16. Serialization/De-serialization of transactions: Capability to encode/decode/process transactions.

  17. Transaction validity and verification: Any transactions flowing within the DERO network are validated,verified.

  18. Socks proxy: Socks proxy has been implemented and integrated within the daemon to decrease user identifiability and improve user anonymity.

  19. Interactive daemon can print blocks, txs, even entire blockchain from within the daemon

  20. status, diff, print_bc, print_block, print_tx and several other commands implemented

  21. GO DERO Daemon has both mainnet, testnet support.

DERO blockchain salient features

DERO Innovations

Following are DERO first and leading innovations.

Client Protocol

Traditional Blockchains process blocks as single unit of computation(if a double-spend tx occurs within the block, entire block is rejected). However DERO network accepts such blocks since DERO blockchain considers transaction as a single unit of computation.DERO blocks may contain duplicate or double-spend transactions which are filtered by client protocol and ignored by the network. DERO DAG processes transactions atomically one transaction at a time.

DERO Rocket BulletProofs

  • Dero ultrafast bulletproofs optimization techniques in the form used did not exist anywhere in publicly available cryptography literature at the time of implementation. Please contact for any source/reference to include here if it exists. Ultrafast optimizations verifies Dero bulletproofs 10 times faster than other/original bulletproof implementations. See: https://github.com/deroproject/derosuite/blob/master/crypto/ringct/bulletproof_ultrafast.go

  • DERO rocket bulletproof implementations are hardened, which protects DERO from certain class of attacks.

  • DERO rocket bulletproof transactions structures are not compatible with other implementations.

Also there are several optimizations planned in near future in Dero rocket bulletproofs which will lead to several times performance boost. Presently they are under study for bugs, verifications, compatibilty etc.

Σ-Mining (Sigma)

Mining in DERO has been completely reworked to vastly decentralize mining rewards with the introduction of Σ-DAGs (SigmaDAGs), which are simply DERO blocks made up of smaller Σ-Blocks (SigmaBlocks) that are constantly emitted and can be added to either main or side blocks. Even more plainly, the Σ-DAG allows on-chain storage of mining data, which effectively turns DERO into one large mining pool. Every miner on the entire network will receive mining rewards based on the amount of work that was contributed, thus creating a truly decentralized network and distribution of rewards. It also greatly improves handling of massive network traffic, where each daemon can support over 10,000 connected devices, acting as a way to pool all of your devices.

_images/emining.png

In addition, each daemon can become it’s own pool, which tracks mining shares from devices connected to it. The daemon itself will retain a fixed fee (currently 5% of total mining rewards probabilistically averaged) for the daemon operator, the rest will be distributed to all miners that contributed shares to that daemon. For most miners, they will be mining using their own daemon, so all rewards and fees will be credited.

DERO Installation

DERO is written in golang and very easy to install both from source and binary.

Installation from Source

  1. Golang version 1.12.12 required.

  2. In go workspace:

go get -u github.com/deroproject/derosuite/...
  1. Check go workspace bin folder for binaries.

  2. For example on Linux machine following binaries will be created:

    derod-linux-amd64 -> DERO daemon.

    dero-wallet-cli-linux-amd64 -> DERO cmdline wallet.

    explorer-linux-amd64 -> DERO Explorer. Yes, DERO has prebuilt personal explorer also for advance privacy users.

Installation from binary

Download DERO binaries for ARM, INTEL, MAC platform and Windows, Mac, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Linux etc. operating systems.

Most users required following binaries:

Windows 7-10, Server 64bit/amd64

Windows 32bit/x86/386

Linux 64bit/amd64

Linux 32bit/x86

FreeBSD 64bit/amd64

OpenBSD 64bit/amd64

Mac OS

Contact for support of other hardware and OS.

Next Step After DERO Installation

Running DERO daemon supports DERO network and shows your support to privacy.

Running DERO Daemon

Run derod.exe or derod-linux-amd64 depending on your operating system. It will start syncing.

  1. DERO daemon core cryptography is highly optimized and fast.

  2. Use dedicated machine and SSD for best results.

  3. VPS with 2-4 Cores, 4GB RAM, 60GB disk is recommended.

_images/derod1.png

DERO Daemon Screenshot

Running DERO Wallet

DERO cmdline wallet is most reliable and has support of all functions. Cmdline wallet is most secure and reliable.

DERO Cmdline Wallet

DERO cmdline wallet is menu based and very easy to operate. Use various options to create, recover, transfer balance etc.

NOTE: DERO cmdline wallet by default connects DERO daemon running on local machine on port 20206.

If DERO daemon is not running start DERO wallet with –remote option like following:

./dero-wallet-cli-linux-amd64 –remote

_images/wallet-recover2.png

DERO Cmdline Wallet Screenshot

DERO Web Wallet

Web Wallet runs in your browser, your seeds, keys etc. never leave your browser.

DERO GUI Wallet

Download DERO GUI Wallet

DERO Explorer

DERO Explorer is used to check and confirm transaction on DERO Network.

DERO users can run their own explorer on local machine and can browse on local machine port 8080.

_images/dero_explorer.png

DERO EXPLORER Screenshot

Proving DERO Transactions

DERO blockchain is completely private, so anyone cannot view, confirm, verify any other’s wallet balance or any transactions. So to prove any transaction you require Tx private key and receiver address.

Tx private key can be obtained using get_tx_key command in dero-wallet-cli.

Enter the Tx private key and receiver address in DERO EXPLORER

_images/explorer-prove-tx.png

DERO Explorer Proving Transaction

DERO Netrwork Dashboard

DERO has two dashboard for stats monitor

Modern Web Based

To add your DERO daemon node in web based dahsboard check.

Retro Cmdline Dashboard

To add your DERO daemon node in Retro dahsboard check.

Use browser or gotty-client in terminal to access dashboard.

gotty-client -v2 network.dero.io:8084;